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The risk in the laboratory

I、The risk in the laboratory
In wastewater treatment plants in laboratory chemicals and other instrument equipments may have the potential for danger, these
risks include: pathogenic substances, electric shocks, poison, poison smoke, explosions, fires, cuts, bruises and burns these dangers
to themselves or others,may be the right technology and equipment and reduced to a minimum.

1. Pathogenic material
Wastewater and sludge containing millions of micro-organisms, some of which are infectious and cause tetanus, typhoid, dysentery,
hepatitis and other diseases. Individuals should wear protective gloves when handling these substances, when processing is complete,
using SOAP and water thoroughly wash your hands, not eating or smoking.

Don't usage to absorb waste water or is polluted water kind, should use other tools to absorb quantity water kind to avoid serious
injury or death. Do not experiment with a beaker or other glass container the cup, leaving a beaker specially if the apparatus used
for drinking, the laboratory operator was a major threat.

2.Corrosive chemicals.
2.1 Acid
For example: sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, acetic acid, hydrofluoric acid, chromic acid and so on. Acid on human
skin, metal, cloth, wood, concrete, stone and concrete are very corrosive. Should prepare to clean material at any time,to prevent
accidents and spills acid when dumping.

2.2 Alkali
For example: sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide. Alkali on the skin, clothing, leather quite corrosive. Should be ready to
clean the material used to prevent accidental spillage and dumping when in the base.

2.3 Other
For example: ammonia, ferric chloride and other strong oxidants.

3.Toxic substances
Solid: cyanide salt, chromium, cadmium and other heavy metals.
Liquid: carbon tetrachloride, chloroform and ammonia, nitric acid, bromine, ammonia, aniline dyes,
    formaldehyde carbon disulfide.
Gas: hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, ammonia, sulphur dioxide.

4.explosive or inflammable substances
Liquid: carbon disulfide and benzene, ether, petroleum ether, acetone, gasoline.
Gas: ethylene, hydrogen, acetylene.

II、Personal security and hygiene
1.Experimental safety
Incorrect technology operating laboratory work is a dangerous act, must obey several following basic principles:
(1)Do not alone in the laboratory work. In case of accidents, such as to make you unconscious, or you can not control the occurrence
  of accidents such as fires, can there be other people to help you.
(2)Should be kept in a laboratory equipped with safety glasses, on safety glasses can not wear contact lenses under, because some of
  the fumes would seep into the lens and the eye, and irritation of the eyes.
(3)Operations may have spill hot liquid from the container, or self-injection device burst experiments of glass fragments should be
  equipped with protection masks.
(4)Laboratory clothing should be worn to protect skin and clothing.
(5)When the operation of high-temperature liquid or cold objects, or when dealing with irritating to the skin of a liquid or solid,
  should wear protective gloves.
(6)Not eating, drinking or smoking in the laboratory, do not use glass containers experimental be food containers.
(7)Not be placed Food of water samples or chemicals in to refrigerator.
(8)The good management will prevent surprised good method from.

2.Personal hygiene
Although unlikely because in waste water treatment plant work and illness, but some diseases may occur:
(1)Some pathogens through the skin, the breakage will be, cut, stabbed and infected with.
(2)Is through the gastrointestinal system or become infected with pathogens of typhoid, cholera, dysentery, amoebiasis, worms,
  salmonella, hepatitis and spinal grey matter such as virus. The best preventive method to wash hands thoroughly with SOAP ,
  face, shall in particular prevent eating unclean materials by hand into the mouth. should replace laboratory clothing in order to
  avoid unclean substances in the home. Personal hygiene, cleaning and hand washing is an effective prevention method.
(3)By breathing contaminated air and become infected with diseases including tuberculosis and hepatitis. Never there is evidence of
  tuberculosis through the wastewater treatment infection of air-borne, but have an employee to contract tuberculosis, because he
  drops into waste water and inhales the waste water into the lung .The best way to prevent such diseases is to observe good personal
  hygiene practices and vaccination, the factory inspectors should be on a regular basis for a health check. the washing hands
  thoroughly with soap cleaning the important, special disinfectant soap and do not need. The use of protective clothing is very
  important, especially gloves and boots, the protection of the wound is also important.In the treatment plant there is no absolute
  guarantee that no infected with disease, however, the most likely way is negligence, there is in the treatment plant special risks, in
  fact, the staff in this environment will naturally produce immunity.

III、The prevention of laboratory accidents
Wastewater laboratory, appropriate drug store, was necessary for security. Stores should have adequate ventilation and lighting, and
separate the drugs that are not compatible display, keep order and clean, all drugs should be clearly marked, the date of Kaifeng should
also note . dont and barehanded operate drugs, should use a medicine spoon.

Heavy objects should be as close as possible to the floor, volatile liquids away from heat sources , light and electrical switches. Storage
of gas cylinders should be sealed and fixed to prevent rolling or dumping, and placed away from heat and power .

IV、The porterage of chemicals
Another is concerned by the store a porterage drugs, instruments, air steel bottle to the laboratory or hazardous substances, when used
for ease of operation, you should use the vines cover glass bottles or other large containers of medicines, or the activity slips a platform。

In the move of gas cylinders should be used when there frame cart, not by the valve at the roll, should be immediately reached to use a
fixed position to avoid moving or dumping.

V、Correct experiment technique
The wrong technology is often the main cause of the accident, but because it related to human nature, it is difficult to correct.
Because drugs characteristic and in the popularization rate in the laboratory, acid and corrosive substance composed of a series of
hazard events, including toxicity, burn, gas on ignition and explosion.Open the bottle of acid in the wash bottles should be preceded
by flushing the external, do not bottle down on the table, because often people will hand on the table;When not in use the caps lock,
and to identify non-acid spilled on the floor, table or bottle wall. To prevent sudden splash, do not pour the water into acid, to acid
slowly into the water.。

Mercury needs special care, a small amount of mercury will make indoor workers poisoned, when accidents splashed out, should
be handled carefully, erases all liquid drops, all mercury containers should be locked.

Electric shock: the power output, plug, connection has the risk of electric shock, average family method was also applied to laboratory
to avoid electric shock, do not use damaged wires,when there is a slight damage to the wires should be immediately renewed, all
instruments should be grounded facilities.
When the liquid spilled on to the motor, cease to use, turn off the power, should be washed thoroughly dried before use. Exposed to
flammable in steam-electric unit of explosion-proof equipment, electrical technicians should be installed correctly for all permanent
line wire or cable, to exclude lines from the over load!

Cuts:Some glass tubes, thermometer and funnel must insert into rubber to stopper ,If the glass is used often powerful power through
plug hole, common laboratory that the resulting cuts.when connection rubber and glass should be careful, front end the glass burns
obtusely using the flame.connection, the hand interface should be as close as possible to avoid the break. Do not use oil to lubricate,
use water to lubricate. the First aid box should place in the laboratory the easy get place.

Sunburn: glass and porcelain ware in the heating, the red disappears, appears to be cold, but the red is gone in seconds, and its enough
to burn the heat can be maintained for several minutes should be placed in the heated until cool. spills into acid corrosive substances,
and when a strong oxidant, should be immediately flushed with water, wastewater laboratories in or near the sink or emergency shower
facilities. Burn prevention protection devices include asbestosis gloves, safety clamp, apron and emergency shower facilities. Operating
the heating process, do not use gloves or tongs that are very troublesome.The small object, the drugs or the smudge enter when the eye
causes chemical burn, possibly is most serious is also most painful, should use the massive clear water or wash eye wash water flushing.

Toxic smoke: Prepares the medicament in the ventilated case, in the ventilated case has the suitable replacement of air, may discharge
the harmful vapor and the gas, the ventilated case should the regular gauging wind speed. When operation chlorine or other toxic
substances, should match the belt individual respiration apparatus, if possible before the personnel enter, the application suitable
method eliminates inside the handling room the air.

Waste disposal: corrosive substances is not poured into the sink or in the channel, these substances will corrode pipes.

Fire: Laboratory should be equipped with fire blankets, fire blankets used to lid to extinguish off on fire, evaporation dish or beaker in
a small fire on the glass cover is available, wet towels, or wet blanket extinguished. A large fire, or will soon spread fire extinguisher
should be used immediately , small fires do not use the fire extinguisher on the beakers, because its blowout's strength will possibly
cause the beaker makes the fire to expand, each person should be familiar with fire extinguisher's operation and the use. For each type
of fire extinguisher should be used properly to get the best control.

Fire classification is based on what substance is burning while the distinction:
A kind: To lumber, paper, textile and similar material, use froth, water, carbon dioxide carbon and so on any type fire extinguisher.
Category B: to oil, grease, paint and related materials, use foam, dry powder fire extinguishers or volatile liquids.
C class: all electrical installations, use carbon dioxide, dry powder fire extinguishers, volatile liquids.
Class D: sodium, zinc, magnesium and other elements, applied dry soda ash, sand or graphite to put out .

Other relevant laboratory of safety and health, published by ring-test laboratory can be found on health
and environmental protection guidelines.